Aqua Distillata or Distilled water
The world’s first ultra pure water, known in history of science as a “water of Kohlrausch,” was obtained in a golden bowl. But what is used in the modern laboratories? In laboratories, pharmacies, and clinics the water distiller with electric heating is used. The capacity depends but for example the home water distiller on average can produces about 1 U.S. gallon (3.785L) every 6 hours of distilled water. This water is suitable for the preparation of medicines, chemical solutions, spot-less washing purposes and acid batteries. You can use the distilled water at home for steam ironing, waterfalls, spot-less glass washing, spot-less car washing, engine cooling systems, vaporizers, lead-acid batteries and others.
However, the Aqua Distillata or Distilled water, obtained by using ordinary distiller, is not suitable for all occasions. For many physical and chemical studies its purity is not sufficient. The result of a chemical experiment may distort some foreign molecules. Physicists are usually most concerned about the electrical conductivity. They need the ultra-pure water.
The water distillers and distillation of water
The modern water distillers for the double distillation of water (re-distiller) and triple distillation of water are made from quartz as well the receivers.
The distillation is carried out without the access of air – in the stream of inert gas or in the vacuum. To remove traces of organic contaminants, including surfactants from the second distillation, the water is boiled, adding to it an oxidizer – potassium permanganate.
One more feature. During the boiling of liquid, the vapor bubbles are formed around the tiny dissolved air bubbles. And if the liquid is carefully removed from the gas, it can’t start to boil for a long time. This difficulty is usually met during the second and third time distillation of water. It happens that the water gets overheated up to 230- 248 ºF or 110-120 ºC until it finally starts to boil. However, if you put something into the distillate water, which is a porous solid, the boiling begins as expected at 212 ºF or 100 ºC. Therefore, so-called “boilers”- pieces of unglazed porcelain, fine glass capillaries are added to the distillate water. Air bubbles adsorbed on their surface are the centers of formation of steam bubbles. If you are going to prepare the bi-distillate water, don’t forget to throw in the distillation flask several “boilers.”
In addition to distillation, there are several other ways of obtaining ultra-pure water: a synthesis of water from carefully purified hydrogen and oxygen and others. However, these methods are used very rarely. The Reverse Osmosis (RO) method and deionization of water are used most commonly.
Obtaining of distilled water at home
The distiller is good in the laboratory. But what to do if the distilled water is urgently needed at home? How to obtain distilled water at home? You always can have the home water distiller by your hand. Put the kettle on a gas stove filled with water and bring the water to the boiling point. Direct the jet steam from the spout to some cold surface, such as a bucket of cold water. Under the bucket put the dish – the receiver of distillate. This device is simple and therefore the production capacity is very small, but in case of need you can improve it even at home.
Open your home refrigerator. In the freezer is a layer of snow, and this snow is nearly distilled. Water vapor from the air condenses on the cold walls of the freezer and turns to snow. Gently scrape the snow and melt it – this is another source of distilled water. Just keep in mind that it will contain the impurities because it evaporates from the food and there is not just water.